CTE Found In Brains Of Former NFL Players

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A study published on July 25, 2015 in the Journal of the American Medical Association, JAMA has found that CTE, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy, in 99% of deceased NFL players' brains that were donated to scientific research. CTE is an effect of experiencing numerous traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and although the average person is more like to suffer a TBI from an auto accident, TBI's can occur while engaging in sports. In fact, all of the brains in the study were required to have football as their primary exposure to head trauma. The research subjects must have had to experience repetitive head trauma in their lifetimes, but may or may not have exhibited CTE symptoms during their lives. 

What Is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?

To explain it more clearly, CTE is pathologically characterized by a buildup of abnormal tau protein in the brain that can disable neuropathways and may lead to a variety of clinical symptoms, such as memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, aggression, depression, anxiety, impulse control issues, and sometimes even suicidal behavior. CTE is found in individuals that have experienced repeated head trauma, and most cases were diagnosed in veterans and people who played contact sports like American football. The only formal diagnosis of this degenerative brain disease is through an autopsy, meaning that we can't knows if someone has CTE, for sure, until after they die. 

The study acknowledges potential bias because relatives of the players may have submitted their brains after noticing clinical symptoms while they were living. It also points out the lack of a comparison group to represent all individuals exposed to college-level or professional football. Without that, the study is unable to provide an overall estimate on the risk of playing football and its effects on the brain. 

CNN reports, "Out of 202 deceased former football players total--a combination of high school, college, and professional players--CTE was neuropathologically diagnosed in 177. The disease was identified in 110 out of 111 former NFL players. It was also found in three of the 14 high school players and 48 of the 53 college players."

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The NFL told CNN, "The medical and scientific communities will benefit from this publication, and the NFL will continue to work with a wide range of experts to improve the health of current and former NFL athletes...there are still many unanswered questions relating to the cause, incidence, and prevalence of long-term effects of head trauma such as CTE." 

The study looked at both the brain pathology, which is the behavior of the disease in the brain, and the clinical history of each participant. It identified four stages of pathological CTE severity among the brains, based on amounts of tau buildup and distribution. Stages one and two are classified as mild and stages three and four are severe. 

CNN summarized, "Individuals who were reported to have experienced more behavioral mood symptoms during their lifetime were more likely to have findings indicative of mild disease as opposed to severe. These symptoms occurred in 96% of mild cases and 89% of severe cases. People with a mild buildup and distribution of tau were also more likely to have died by suicide. Those with a severe buildup, on the other hand, were more likely to have experienced cognitive symptoms, such as memory loss." 

One of the biggest problems is a lack of encouragement for players to seek treatment. Stereotypes about mental health treatment and studies that emphasize problems stemming from brain trauma, without fully explaining the science behind it, may give athletes the idea that they can't do anything to help themselves. Although CTE can currently only be diagnosed after death, many symptoms of the disease that occur in someone's lifetime, like depression and anxiety, are treatable. It is important for someone experiencing symptoms from a traumatic brain injury to receive an evaluation from a neurologist and work with them to create a treatment plan. 

Dr. Jeffrey Kutcher, national director of the Sports Neurology Clinic at the Core Institute, who was not involved in the study, said, "My rule as a physician, as a neurologist, is to protect and promote the brain health of my patients over the course of a lifetime, no question about that. You have to look at the total person though. You have to understand why people play sports. It's an individual decision, everybody gets different things out of it. You also have to understand what the arc of their life is going to be, what their health is going to be at the end of their career." 

Kutcher mentions that most of the brains in the study came from players that were on the field decades ago, from the 1950s to the 1990s, with the rest having played more recently. There were not the same brain injury awareness, medical protocols, or equipment back then as there is today. 

Dr. Ann McKee, director of Boston University's CTE center, and a coauthor of the study, are currently conducting more research on CTE and its effects. They are examining lengths of exposure to head trauma, the age of first exposure, the lengths of playing careers, and how these relate to the risk of CTE and its pathological severity. They are also using the 177 donated brains with CTE to discover if there are any genetic risk factors of the disease.

"It certainly can be prevented," McKee said, "'That's why we really need to understand how much exposure to head trauma and what type of head trauma the body can sustain before it gets into this irreversible cascade of events." 

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Additionally, in a statement commenting on the study, the league said, "The NFL is committed to supporting scientific research into CTE and advancing progress in the prevention and treatment of head injuries. In 2016, the NFL pledged $100 million in support for independent medical research and engineering advancements in neuroscience related topics. This is in addition to the $100 million that the NFL and its partners are already spending on medical and neuroscience research."

The Michigan Law Firm, PLLC Blog previously discussed that the NFL settled a class action with ex-football players who had suffered from brain injuries, potentially paying out $4 million, to those who suffered from CTE.


The start of fall means that football season is here, and football season means cleats on turf and helmets against helmets. As spirited at American become during this time of year, it's important to remember that repetitive head trauma caused by playing football may lead to CTE or other brain injuries. It should also be noted that traumatic brain injuries can be caused by experiencing a blow to the head in a motor vehicle accident. If you or someone you know has experienced a traumatic brain injury from a car crash, contact The Michigan Law Firm, PLLC at 844.4MI.FIRM for a free legal consultation. Let us take care of your legal trouble while you focus on improving your health.

NFL Settled A Concussion Class Action Lawsuit

Research has drawn links between football players receiving multiple blows to the head and numerous degenerative brain diseases. Due to this research, a class action lawsuit was filed in by thousands of retired professional football players against the NFL, for hiding the risk of brain injuries that comes with playing in the league. An increasing number of NFL players are affected by the league's choice to not disclose the health risks of concussions and repeated blows to the head that come with playing on the professional level. CNN Money stated that the Supreme Court sided with the players, deciding in December, 2016 to not hear an appeal of the case. Any of the men who are found to be eligible for the settlement payments must have retired before July 7, 2014, and may be awarded up to $5 million each. Settlement amounts are based on the number of years played in the NFL, the severity of the player's brain disease, and age. Over 11,000 retired football players expect to receive their portion of the lawsuit settlement this year.

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The New York Times reported that two of these claims were recently settled on June 16, 2017 for a combined total of $9 million. Although the two claimants have gone unnamed, one NFL player's wife, Marlene Breasley, spoke of her husband, Terry Breasley, 66, who played for three years under the San Francisco 49ers. Marlene told CNN Money how beneficial the settlement money would be for her family if they are found to be eligible. Due to his years of playing football, Beasley continues to experience the effects of more than 40 concussions from his playing years, and is currently on more than 10 medications. His illness keeps him confined to his bed as he suffers from chronic headaches and short seizures all day. 

"He has trouble speaking. Terry gets injections for the pain, but it never goes away. He sleeps for a couple hours when he can until the pain gets so bad that it wakes him up," Marlene said.  "It's [the settlement money] going to help us buy the medicines he needs, get the physical help he needs from remodeling our house to make it handicap accessible to having someone with him 24 hours a day." 

It’s unfortunate that Beasley and so many other men are suffering from brain injuries caused by playing the sport they love, because according to the Brain Injury Society (BIS), sports are a relatively uncommon source of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among the general population. In fact, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that falls are the number one source of TBIs for the non-professional football playing population of America. The second most common cause for TBIs is unintentional blunt trauma followed by motor vehicle accidents. Still, TBIs are a major cause of death and disability in the US and contribute to 30% of all injury deaths. 

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People who are diagnosed with a TBI can suffer from a lifetime of effects, such as impaired memory, thinking, movement, sensation, and/or emotional function. Men and people ages 65 and up are more likely to suffer from TBIs than other members of the population, possibly explaining why NFL players are increasingly discovering the consequences of getting paid to hit their bodies against each other. According to CNN Money, there are a few types of degenerative brain diseases that also may be caused by a traumatic brain injury, that also affect how much money each ex-NFL player may be entitled to.

Degenerative Brain Diseases Caused By Traumatic Brain Injury

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)

 According to the Concussion Legacy Foundation, CTE is a degenerative brain disease in which "a protein called Tau forms clumps that slowly spread throughout the brain, killing brain cells." The unfortunate thing about this disease is that it can only be detected by autopsy, after a person's death. However, "early symptoms of CTE usually appear in a patient's late 20s or 30s, and affect a patient's mood and behavior. Some common changes seen include impulse control problems, aggression, depression, and paranoia." Relatives of NFL players who lost their loved ones to CTE may receive $4 million dollars from the NFL brain injury class action lawsuit settlement.

Alzheimer's and Dementia

According to the Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's leads to nerve cell death and tissue loss within the brain. This causes the brain to shrink dramatically and affects all of its functions. NFL players who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's may be awarded $3.5 million.

The Alzheimer's Association explains dementia as a general term used to describe a severe decline in mental ability that can effect everyday life. Doctors have a hard time determining the extent of a patient's dementia because it affects every person's brain differently. Players diagnosed with moderate dementia might be awarded $3 million in this settlement while players with early dementia may be awarded around $1.5 million.

Lou Gehrig's Disease/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

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The ALS Association explains that ALS is "a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. A-myo-trophic comes from the Greek language. "A" means no. "Myo" refers to muscle, and "Trophic" means nourishment – "No muscle nourishment." When a muscle has no nourishment, it "atrophies" or wastes away. "Lateral" identifies the areas in a person's spinal cord where portions of the nerve cells that signal and control the muscles are located. As this area degenerates, it leads to scarring or hardening ("sclerosis") in the region."

Though people know about ALS because it was the disease that caused Lou Gehrig to leave his successful baseball career, the degenerative brain disease was still unknown to many in our current generation. However, many people recently became educated on the disease due to very popular, social media "Ice Bucket Challenge," which raised millions of dollars for treatment. 

Due to the severity of ALS and the fact that it doesn't have a cure, players who have been diagnosed with Lou Gehrig's disease may receive up to $5 million dollars in compensation from the NFL.  

Parkinson’s Disease (PD)

Parkinson's Disease, according to the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, is "a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that its symptoms continue and worsen over time." "Parkinson’s involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons. Parkinson's primarily affects neurons in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Some of these dying neurons produce dopamine, a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As PD progresses, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movement normally." The cause of Parkinson's is currently unknown and there is no cure as of yet. Retired NFL players diagnosed with Parkinson's may receive $3.5 million from the settlement.

Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms

The CDC lists the following as symptoms for TBIs that people who have sustained a head injury should keep an eye out for. The symptoms typically fall into four categories.

Emotional/Mood

  • Irritability
  • Sadness
  • More emotional
  • Nervousness or anxiety 

Sleep

  • Sleeping more than usual
  • Sleep less than usual
  • Trouble falling asleep

 

Thinking/Remembering

  • Difficulty thinking clearly
  • Feeling slowed down
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Difficulty remembering new information

Physical

  • Headache
  • Fuzzy or blurry vision
  • Nausea or vomiting (early on)
  • Dizziness
  • Sensitivity to noise or light
  • Balance problems
  • Feeling tired, having no energy
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While the families of these brain damaged football players might feel relieved that the compensation from the lawsuit might help them cover some medical bills, it is clear that they are more upset with the larger problem. That problem is that brain damage and brain diseases alter a person, sometimes indefinitely, and that these families aren't able to spend the same quality time with their loved ones that they used to. Some ex-NFL players are tied up in dealing with the stresses of medical appointments and medical bills instead of enjoying retirement.

While it's every child's (and some adults') dream to become a sports legend, most professional sports careers don't work out. People are more likely to sustain a head injury in a motor vehicle accident than in a Detroit Lions game! As such, anytime a person is involved in a car accident, or any time someone takes a blow to the head, it is important that they should immediately seek medical attention to rule out a traumatic brain injury.


Traumatic Brain Injuries are serious health issues that should not be ignored or taken lightly. Whether the brain injury was acquired through playing sports, a car accident, or by slip and fall, it is a good idea to err on the side of caution and seek immediate medical attention after taking a hit to the head. As the article shows, experiencing a TBI could cause long-term if not life-altering afflictions and problems for victims. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with a TBI after an auto accident, call The Michigan Law Firm, PLLC at 844.4MI.FIRM for a free consultation with a personal injury lawyer today.

Speight's Clavicle Fracture Cost Michigan A Win Against Iowa

Michigan Football Wilton Speight Injury

University of Michigan’s quarterback Wilton Speight broke his clavicle in a game against Iowa on Saturday, November 12, 2016. Two opposing players tackled Speight and fell on top of him causing him to rotate his shoulder in obvious discomfort.  Speight was walked off the field and stuck on the sidelines while physicians poked and prodded at his shoulder for the remainder of the game. 

Having a fractured clavicle is a common injury in contact sports such as lacrosse, football, and soccer. However, most people are unaware that victims of an automobile collision are commonly known to have this injury as well.

3 Ways a Clavicle Bone Is Known To Break

  1. One of the breaks is called a distal clavicle fracture. The distal clavicle fracture is an ordinary injury from accidents occurring for example when a person hits the dashboard.

  2. The second clavicle fracture is a fracture that breaks in the middle of the clavicle bone. This injury is the most common type among car accident victims, and can be caused by overextending the arm in order to brace the person's fall.

  3. The third is the least common clavicle fracture, called a proximal fracture. The proximal fracture occurs near the breastbone, and may be caused by an accident victim's chest hitting the steering wheel upon impact. In severe cases the clavicle bone can suffer a compound fracture causing it to puncture through the skin or penetrate nerves, blood vessels, and even the lungs. These severe injuries can lead to an alarming amount of complications such as difficulty breathing and an exorbitant hospital bill for corrective surgery. 

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The Symptoms of a Fractured Collarbone

According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, the following are symptoms of a fractured collarbone:

  • Swelling, tenderness and bruising along the collarbone.
  • Increased pain and difficulty moving the arm.
  • The shoulder slumps forward, inward or downward.
  • A bump along the collarbone. 

A fractured clavicle in adults, generally takes six to eight weeks to heal in adults, so Speight isn't expected to take the maize and blue field anytime soon. “It’s going to depend on how he feels,” said University of Michigan football coach Jim Harbaugh. “Could be a (game-time decision). We will know based on what the doctors say and how Wilton’s feeling.”

It is imperative that anyone who has a fractured collarbone or has any of the symptoms of a broken collarbone should immediately seek medical attention, especially if involved in a motor vehicle accident. 


Having a clavicle fracture is a serious injury that can affect your life in a significant way. Not only do injuries sustained in automobile accidents prevent you from carrying out your everyday life, but they also cause medical bills to pile up. If you or somebody you know has suffered a clavicle fracture caused by a car accident, please call The Michigan Law Firm, PLLC. Our firm will work hard to get you any benefits you may be entitled to under Michigan law. Call us today, at 844.4MI.FIRM for a free consultation

NFL Takes Precautions Against Concussions

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The 2016 National Football League (NFL) regular season started  on Thursday, September 8, 2016. This is an exciting time of year for many NFL fans, as it is a brand new season full of hopes and dreams for their favorite NFL team.

Another exciting thing that comes with the start of the NFL season is the start of fantasy football. For many who play fantasy football, the hope for a new fantasy season can match or even sometimes exceed their excitement for the actual NFL season. Of course, one of the concerns that comes with fantasy football every year, as well as with NFL teams, is injuries to athletes that play this game. This year in the NFL, a new rule change is being implemented that is thought to help with reducing injuries. This year when a team receives the ball on a kickoff, and the play results in a touchback, the receiving team will be awarded the football at the 25-yard line.

In previous years in NFL history, teams were given the ball on only the 20-yard line after a touchback. The main reason behind this change is believed to be to try to cut down on concussions across the league. On a kickoff, players are usually moving faster than on almost any other type of play, and with 22 total players running full speed at each other on the kickoff, many injuries have resulted on kickoffs in previous years. The NFL has been trying to find ways to cut back on concussions in previous years, changing many rules and details of the game to try to avoid concussions as much as possible.

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According to ESPN, The NFL says reported concussions in regular-season games rose 58 percent from 2014 to 2015, the highest number (182) in any of the past four years. Jeff Miller, the NFL's Senior Vice President of Health and Safety Policy said during a conference call, that the league will study what might have caused the incidence of head injuries to rise so much this season. Among the possible explanations Miller mentioned were a doubling in the number of players screened for possible concussions, "unprecedented levels of players reporting signs and signals of concussions," and that trainers who work as spotters or independent neurologists on sidelines "are much more actively participating in identifying this injury." As the season is already underway, it will be interesting to see if the new rule helps to decrease concussions from 2015 to 2016.


Brain injuries from concussions can be very serious injuries, but it isn't just NFL players who deal with concussions and the lingering issues that can stem from concussions. Concussions can also occur when involved in a motor vehicle accident, even if the accident wasn't a major one. If you or anyone you know has suffered a concussion or any other injuries from a car accident call The Michigan Law Firm today. Our attorneys are highly experienced in dealing with all types of motor vehicle accidents and will work hard to get you the help you need. Call us today, at 844.4MI.FIRM, for a free consultation.

MLB Pitcher Hit In Head By 105 MPH Line Drive

Matt Shoemaker Head Injury

One of the many dangers of playing baseball is that a ball flying over 90 miles per hour, and even sometimes over 100 miles per hour, can do some serious damage if it were to hit a player. One such scary situation involving Los Angeles Angels pitcher Matt Shoemaker occurred on September 4th. Shoemaker was pitching to Seattle Mariners third baseman Kyle Seager in the second inning of the game at Safeco Field in Seattle, when Seager ripped a line drive right back at Shoemaker, which drilled Shoemaker right in the head, as he tried to avoid it. The line drive that hit Shoemaker came off Seager's bat at a stunning 105 mph, according to MLB Statcast. The Angels pitcher fell to his knees before the Angels' trainers hurried out to the pitcher’s mound, followed by Shoemaker’s teammates, and even Kyle Seager as well. After remaining on the ground for some time, Shoemaker rose to his feet, firmly holding a towel to what appeared to be a bleeding head. He had to immediately leave the game and received a standing ovation from the Seattle crowd as he walked to the visiting team’s dugout.

Shoemaker was immediately taken to a hospital to where according to the New York Daily News, a CT scan revealed a small skull fracture and small hematoma. Shoemaker had to undergo surgery to stop bleeding in his brain. He had the procedure performed late on September 4th and was being treated by Dr. Manuel Ferreira of the University of Washington Medical Center. Los Angeles athletic trainer Adam Nevala stayed with Shoemaker until he was able to travel to Southern California.

General manager Billy Eppler provided the update on September 5th, saying Shoemaker had been receiving CT scans every 2-3 hours when the third image showed increased bleeding, shortly before 9 p.m. That’s when surgery was determined to be the next step. “The CT scan confirmed or when they actually did the operation that confirmed where the bleeding was,” Eppler said. “They were able to access that area. They were able to seal it, stop the bleeding. He was wheeled back up into recovery and is recovering fine.” As bad as this situation with Matt Shoemaker was, the fortunate side of the whole situation is that Shoemaker is still alive, and looks like he is going to be alright.


Brain injuries form sports accidents can be very serious injuries, but these same or even worse injuries can also occur when involved in a car accident. Sometimes, traumatic brain injuries don't present themselves right away. This is why it is absolutely important to immediately see a doctor following any kind of car crash. If you or anyone you know has been injured in a car accident, call The Michigan Law Firm. Our attorneys are highly experienced in dealing with all types of motor vehicle accidents and can get you the help you need. Call us today, at 844.4MI.FIRM, for a free consultation.

New Study: Concussion Symptoms Still Present Up To Six Months After Injury

A new study has revealed that the worst of concussion symptoms and consequences may not present themselves until six months after the injury occurred. This is concerning because many athletes at young ages are sent back into action far sooner than the six month time frame. 

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The American Academy of Neurology ran studies on 18 high school and college football players who had experienced a concussion. All of these student athletes showed signs of brain damage six months after the injury. Following current medical protocol, all of these players were cleared to return to the field in seven to ten days. Because symptoms such as headaches, difficulty balancing, and memory or thinking problems usually reveal themselves in the immediate hours and days following the brain injury, current guidelines suggest that players are good to go when those symptoms have dissipated. 

"The findings generally add to the growing body of science to suggest that the tail of physiological recovery after concussion extends beyond the time point of clinical recovery," Michael McCrea, Director of Brain Injury Research at the Medical School of Wisconsin, explained. 

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The student athletes will be studied for two years, and researchers are hopeful that it can help shed light on whether some athletes may be returning to sports too soon. "As odd as this sounds, we want to know not only when is the athlete ready to return to an activity functionality but when is their brain ready to return physiologically," McCrea told The Washington Post

With football season right around the corner, parents who have children playing the sport should pay attention to their child's behavior and report if they notice any of the following symptoms according to the Mayo Clinic: persisting headaches, confusion, lack of coordination, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, ringing in the ears, sleepiness, and excessive fatigue. Concussions caused by playing sports aren't always obvious during the game. Even a player's head hitting the ground awkwardly may cause a brain injury. When in doubt, it's always best to call a doctor and seek medical treatment. 


While traumatic brain injuries are a big issue facing athletes, they also can be an effect of auto accidents. As stated, brain injury symptoms may not be apparent even months after a motor vehicle accident. If you or somebody you know has been involved in a collision that may have caused brain damage or a closed head injury, call The Michigan Law Firm, PLLC.  Our attorneys will work alongside you to uncover any and all benefits you may be entitled to under Michigan law, even if it has been months after the accident. Call us today, at 844.4MI.FIRM for a free consultation.